By Joseph Gerard Brennan

Similar logic books

Sets, logic & numbers

This article is designed to provide the scholar a heritage within the foundations of algebra and research. The algebra of symbolic good judgment and the concept that of set are brought early within the textual content in order that the most definitional improvement of the advanced quantity process flows simply from a suite of postulates for the ordinary numbers.

Fuzzy Logic Foundations and Industrial Applications

Fuzzy common sense Foundations and business purposes is an geared up edited choice of contributed chapters overlaying easy fuzzy good judgment idea, fuzzy linear programming, and functions. detailed emphasis has been given to assurance of modern learn effects, and to business functions of fuzzy common sense.

Additional info for A handbook of logic

Sample text

Similarly, the contradictory of (3x) (Fx . -Gx) ("There is an x which is F - (3x ) IFx . ---------" 13x)IFx · Gx) - (3x) IFx . Gx) 13x )IFx · -Gx) and not G") is -(3x) (Fx . -Gx) ("It is not the case that there is an x which is F and not G"). In other words, the A proposition is the contradictory of the O. If we choose to express the four propositional forms in the symbolic notation associated with the Venn diagrams (p. 23), then we can see that ab # 0 (particular affirmaab=O A E ab=O o ab+O tive I) is simply the negation or contradictory of ab = 0 (universal negative E) ; in the same way, ab # 0 (particular negative 0) is the negation or contradictory of ab = o.

We know that it is formally invalid to infer a general proposition from a particular. " But what about the other way around? " But if the modern doctrine of the nonexistential import of general propositions holds (see p. 2 I), then it would appear that particular propositions cannot be inferred from general ones. For according to this doctrine, general propositions do not assert the existence of what they are talking about, while particular ones do. Such an analysis appears to compromise the validity of many of the simple propositional inferences illustrated above, as well as the correctness of a number of syllogistic inferences we have yet to examine.

Paddy's Irish and water is a refreshing drink. 14. Tasmanian devils are carnivorous marsupials. 15. Most rocket engines don't use solid fuel. 4. Invent Venn diagrams for the following propositions. I. Americans are not materialists. 2. The A nalysis of Propositions 31 Hemingway's heroines are docile. A single wolverine is a fearful destroyer. Most babies are easily amused. Rattlesnakes are pit vipers. Some logicians were trampled In the rush to Ohrbach's. 7. Many wallabies do not have bachelor's degrees.