By Francisca Loetz, Rosemary Selle

In the past, historic learn has taken care of violence regularly with regards to battle, homicide or bloodbath. Francisca Loetz argues for a brand new, complementary method of heritage of violence as an interpersonal type of social motion skilled as unacceptable habit and aiming to subjugate the sufferer in daily life. reading instances of what the resources name "sexual attack" and "sexual abuse" within the urban country of Zurich among 1500 and 1850, Loetz discusses primary methodological difficulties resembling: how can violence be outlined as an idea? What makes violence what it really is in a given society? Why is early glossy "sexual attack" and "sexual abuse" no longer such as smooth rape and abuse? How does Zurich examine with pre-modern Europe?

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Loetz (2003). e. products of verbal action which have been written down by the court clerks according to judicial criteria? From a linguistic perspective, speaking can be regarded as acting with words. P. 67 Such models analyze how trains of speech relate to each other and take effect on the basis of certain “conversation maxims”. 69 What makes the verbal utterance an action is the fact that those listening recognize every verbal formulation as action. e. 70 Thus communication is based on exchanging evaluations of actions.

33 Cf. 3, p. 1826. 34 Cf. 21, p. 1826. Rape And Sexual Abuse In Zurich—empirical Findings 35 diagram 2 Cases of sexualized violence. Organization of the Zurich Courts 1798–1850. The court records do not often give us the chance to follow a case on its way through the various institutions. But the court collections of the 19th century prove that the case of Regula Walder did correspond to the required succession of courts. 35 The organigram shows that sexualized violence came under the competence of the two highest courts of the communal state of Zurich.

The reports attempted to localize the reasons for physical pain, attributing “fever” and “state of excitation” to inner physical 1 On the problem of international comparison at the judicial level cf. European Sourcebook (2010); McGlynn/Munro (2010). 2 Cf. , 79. On the closely related source terms “violation” (Schändung), “defloration” (Entjungferung), “seduction” (Verführung), “coercion” (Nötigung) in 19th-century Rome: Pelaja (1996), 29f. 3 For Bologna and Geneva cf. Pastore (1998); Porret (1992).

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