By W. B. Crow (Auth.)
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Hormones secreted by endocrine glands carried by the blood and affecting tissues. b. Diffusion of carbon dioxide and urea from tissues through blood to places of elimination (lungs and kidneys respectively) . c. Diffusion of oxygen and nutriment from place of intake (lungs and gut respectively) to place of usage. d. , of sap to and from vessels to tissues, sugar solution through walls (translocation), of a u x i n s or growth substances through walls (how far the plasmodesms help is not known).
The hilum THE CELL 19 may be central and the strata concentric as in starch grains of wheat, or the hilum may be excentric as in potato starch. When there is more than one centre of deposition in a single leucoplast, c o m p o u n d g r a i n s arise. Compound grains are best developed in grasses and chenopods ; in the latter family there may be very many centres in each grain. S e m i - c o m p o u n d Fig. —Starch grains. grains arise when deposition begins about two or more centres and is continued as a common layer enclosing the same.
I. JEcidiospores, unicellular, orange or yellow, with a hyaline, thick warty wall, formed in parallel masses with one layer of sterile cells outside ; on germination they give rise to hyphae infecting a second host and producing either of the following :— 2. Uredospores, or summer spores, unicellular, red or brown, with often prickly walls, with a definite number of pores ; on germination they give hyphae which produce the same or the next. 3. Teleutospores, or winter spores, with dark or black walls, onecelled or many-celled, and on germination produce a basidium.