By David Harrison Ph.D. (auth.)

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The rest is carried chemically combined in plasma and red cells. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase found in red cells catalyses the initial stage, the formation of carbonic acid: C02+H20 carbonic anhydrase H2C0 3 ~l:I++~C0 3 - ... to Hb '\ ' to plasma in exchange for Cl- Arteries BLOOD CIRCULATION Mammals have a double circulation (compare with dogfish and frog). Left side of heartoxygenated blood, to tissues Right side of heartdeoxygenated blood, to lungs. Brain Thick walled, elastic, carry blood from heart to tissues (or lungs).

Many species, from 10 to 500,tlm diameter. Habitats: fresh water and marine, and water film round soil particles. Genus Entamoeba parasitic in man includes species E. histolytica (amoebic dysentery), E. gingiva/is (gums, round bases of teeth). Amoeba proteus Habitat: fresh water, common on muddy bottoms of ponds. m Gust visible to naked eye with suitable lighting). reezing it forward') on Plasmagel stationary, with respect to substrate Reproduction No evidence of sexual reproduction: meiosis is unlikely to occur because of the difficulty of pairing some 500 to 1000 minute chromosomes (if indeed they are properly organised chromosomes).

Symbiotic in legume roots. PUTREFACTION Saprophytic bacteria secrete cellulases (cellulose to hexoses ), pro teases (proteins to amino acids) and lipases (fats to fatty acids and glycerol), which digest dead organic material. They are important in the soil, breaking down humus, and the end products, ammonia, nitrogenous salts, improve soil fertility. Intestinal bacteria are important agents of digestion in herbivorous animals. Most animals cannot produce cellulases and rely on flora of stomach or caecum to break down cellulose, the major part of their diet.

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