By Earl J. Kirkland

Preface to moment version a number of new subject matters were further, a few small mistakes were corrected and a few new references were extra during this variation. New issues contain aberration corrected tools, scanning confocal mode of operations, Bloch wave eigenvalue equipment and parallel computing concepts. The ?rst variation - cluded a CD with laptop courses, which isn't integrated during this version. - stead the linked courses might be to be had on an linked site (currently people.ccmr.cornell.edu/˜kirkland,but may perhaps circulation as time is going on). I desire to thank Mick Thomas for getting ready the specimen used to checklist the picture in Fig.5.26 and to thank Stephen P. Meisburger for suggesting an enticing organic specimen to take advantage of in Fig.7.24. back, I say sorry prematurely for leaving out a few undoubtedlyoutstanding r- erences. I additionally make an apology for the as but undiscovered error that stay within the textual content. Earl J. Kirkland, December 2009 Preface to First version picture simulation has turn into a typical device in HREM (High solution El- tron Microscopy) lately. notwithstanding, the literature at the topic is scattered between many various journals and convention lawsuits that experience happened within the final or 3 a long time. it's dif?cult for rookies to start during this ?eld.

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However it is C independent and can be deleted without a great loss. 193. Parks, 'DFT/FFT and Convolution Algorithms' (Wiley, 1985). Singelton, 'Algorithm 345, An ALGOL Convolution Procedure Based on the Fast Fourier Transform', Comm. 9. AN FFT SUBROUTINE IN FORTRAN C (see especially routine FFT4) C C F C W C N complex array of input data, will be replaced by its FFT complex scratch array to hold look up table of sin/cos length of F and W (N= 2**LN ). N MUST be a power of 2 C SUBROUTINE FFT842( F, N ) IMPLICIT NONE INTEGER N COMPLEX F(N) INTEGER KO, Kl, K2, K3, KINC, KINC2, I, J, K, Nl + COMPLEX WO, Wl, W2, W3 COMPLEX F02A, F02B, F13A, F13B REAL TPI, Xl C C the following var.

3. 3)-1/4 and ~o = DsVCs>'. 10). Apart from the extra term with € (typically small) the oscillatory portion of the transfer functions is the same as the coherent case. The main change is the addition of a damping envelope that attenuates the transfer function at high spatial frequencies. 40) where E, I and V are the electron energy, lens currents and acceleration voltage respectively, and ~E, ~I and ~V are the lie width of their fluctuations. 5 for typical values of the electron optical parameters.

9 for various value of defocus and objective aperture. The graph has been scaled to make hADF(O) = 1. 43{Cs A3)1/4. 4. ANNULAR DARK FIELD STEM 37 (a) 'Iii a. (b) 'Iii a. 9: The STEM probe intensity (approximate point spread function) when astigmatism is negligible versus normalized radius R = r(CsA3)-1/4 for various values of the normalized defocus D = /:If(C s A)-1/2 and objective aperture Kmax = kmax(CsA3)1/4. 5 The transfer function is just the inverse Fourier transform of the point spread function.