By Philip C. Withers, Christine E. Cooper (auth.), Carlos Arturo Navas, José Eduardo Carvalho (eds.)
Numerous animal species stay in environments characterised by means of a seasonal relief within the availability of water, which frequently yet no longer regularly happens while temperatures are maximum. for plenty of such animals, survival in the course of the hardest season calls for spending lengthy classes of time in a slightly inactive country referred to as aestivation. yet aestivation is way greater than ultimate inactive. winning aestivation calls for the choice of a formal microhabitat, variable levels of metabolic arrest and responsiveness to exterior stimuli, the facility to feel the right kind time of 12 months for emergence, the renovation of inactive tissue, and lots more and plenty extra. So, aestivation comprises a fancy selection of behaviors, ecological institutions and physiological changes that adjust throughout species of their variety, importance and path. This publication seeks to discover the phenomenon of aestivation from assorted views and degrees of association, starting from microhabitat choice to genetic regulate of physiological alterations. It brings jointly authors from the world over engaged on diversified systematic teams, techniques, and questions, yet who're all eventually operating to raised comprehend the complicated factor of aestivation.
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Extra resources for Aestivation: Molecular and Physiological Aspects
For example, the daily energy saving for a dunnart using shallow daily torpor is about 36% for 13 h of torpor but for a hibernating ground squirrel, is about 85% over 6 months. 1 Metabolic Depression: A Historical Perspective 17 Torpor may also play an important role in maintaining water balance. , Carpenter 1969; Lasiewski 1964; MacMillen 1965; Buffenstein 1985) and more recently for marsupials (Cooper et al. 2005; Cooper et al. 2009), a combination of a decrease in respiratory water loss and a drop in body temperature reduces total evaporative water loss to as little as 14–50% of normothermic values.
Entry into hypometabolic states including aestivation, hibernation, anaerobiosis, and others involves coordinated changes in the phosphorylation states of many cellular enzymes and functional proteins. The addition of phosphate groups via protein kinases or their removal via protein phosphatases can have multiple consequences for target proteins/enzymes including major changes in activity (ranging up to complete on/off control), changes in substrate affinity and susceptibility to allosteric activators or inhibitors, changes in binding to other proteins, subcellular structures or DNA, and changes in subcellular location, to name a few.
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