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East Africa has considerable geothermal resources along the Rift Valley, where high temperatures near the surface produce an estimated geothermal potential of 9 000 MW20, of which only 45 MW are used in Kenya and 9 MW in Ethiopia to produce electricity. Geothermal plants exist is Algeria (100 MW) and Tunisia (20 MW) but only for direct use because the sources are not as hot. Ten East and Southern African countries (the Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia) announced at the April 2003 UN Environment Programme conference in Nairobi that they wanted to develop geothermal energy to produce a total of 1 000 MW by 2020.

Progress was achieved in 2002 in the preparation of detailed implementation plans for key NEPAD priorities, including Peace and Security, the Declaration on Democracy, Political and Corporate Governance and the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM). The Joint Africa/G8 Plan to enhance Africa’s capability to undertake Peace Support Operations, which was launched in 2003, is unique in its effort to address conflicts on the continent. The Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Programme (CAADP), prepared in 2003 in collaboration with the FAO, is being used as a basis for preparing detailed and costed country- and regionspecific projects for implementation.

Notably, for Africa as a whole, the AEO 2002/2003 concluded that income poverty would be reduced, on present trend, from about 48 per cent in 1990 to about 39 per cent in 2015, far from the MDGs’ 23 per cent. This conclusion remains generally valid since no dramatic changes are expected to occur in the indicators used for assessment over one year. The AEO will, however, continue to monitor Africa’s progress toward the MDGs, placing emphasis on refining the methodology of assessment, deepening the analysis by revisiting progress in individual targets and their stipulated indicators, and examining policy issues pertaining to the attainment of MDGs.

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