By Mark Casson

"in the postwar international the most position of the multinational company has been the foreign diffusion of propriety expertise and managerial talents"

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This margin governs the optimal size and structure of the firm. 10 develops predictions regarding the nature of the markets most prone to internalisation, and the probable degree of monopoly within them. The theory predicts that the operations of MNEs will be concentrated in particular areas of economic activity. This provides the guidelines for the theory of foreign direct investment developed in Chapter 4. 2 THE MARKET-CLEARING MECHANISM This section considers the gains to internalisation which stem from greater flexibility in market organisation.

A. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. ll/10/Rev. 2, Table 10. Note: Figures in brackets are estimated quantities. Total Date Country Patents, trademarks, etc Payment ($m. 12. 0 ~ "'I:: "' ~ ~ ~ So ~ ~ ;::: ...... ~ ...... e. 16 In view of this it cannot be said that the real cost of importing technology into LDCs is prohibitively high. 75% of the host country GNP. Indeed it will be one of the main arguments of this book that the major barrier to the transfer of technology to LDCs is not the cost to the host country, but the unwillingness of source-country firms to license or invest because of the difficulty of appropriating a reasonable share of the wealth created by the technology.

Bo .... :! :! :! "' ~ ~:::~·- y' y' y' y' y' y' ..... ;:. ;: y' y' Source: R. D. Robinson, National Control of Foreign Business Entry: A Survey of Fifteen Countries, New York, 1976. 9 EQUITY AND EFFICIENCY Although host countries perceive many problems in their relations with MNEs this does not imply that an international economic order based on the transfer of technology by MNEs should be rejected. It must first be demonstrated that a preferable alternative regime exists. The alternative must be feasible: it must not be based on an ideal view of how the world economy works, but must take full account of economic, social and political constraints.

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