By Enes Kadic
Reviews and compares the main different types of bioreactors, defines their execs and cons, and identifies learn wishes and figures of advantage that experience but to be addressed
- Describes universal modes of operation in bioreactors
- Covers the 3 universal bioreactor kinds, together with stirred-tank bioreactors, bubble column bioreactors, and airlift bioreactors
- Details much less universal bioreactors varieties, together with mounted mattress bioreactors and novel bioreactor designs
- Discusses benefits and downsides of every bioreactor and gives a strategy for optimum bioreactor choice in line with present procedure needs
- Reviews the issues of bioreactor choice globally whereas contemplating all bioreactor innovations instead of targeting one particular bioreactor type
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Bioreactor Hydrodynamics and Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer
The first term on the right-hand side of Eq. 7) accounts for the hydrostatic head, the second term describes wall shear effects, and the third term represents fluid acceleration due to void changes. The contribution of the acceleration term is typically ∼ 1% of the total gas holdup (Merchuk and Stein, 1981). 5 m/s, respectively, the acceleration term amounted to less than 10% of the total gas holdup. , 1997). Without the acceleration term, Eq. 8) To obtain the average gas holdup ???? in a column section between two locations separated by a distance Δz = z2 − z1 (> 0), average both sides of Eq.
The superficial liquid velocity in the riser (ULr ) or downcomer (ULd ) is more commonly used as they are more meaningful and allow for direct comparison of liquid circulation rates in reactors of varying sizes. The superficial liquid velocity is different from the true linear velocity because the liquid flow occupies only a portion of the flow channel—the space occupied by rising gas bubbles reduces the local cross-sectional area available for liquid flow. The superficial liquid velocity cannot be directly measured and is usually determined from the knowledge of the linear liquid velocity (VL ) and gas holdup.
Rather than solving the model explicitly to determine kL a, they suggested that since the electrode signal is most distorted during the initial response, one could find kL a by removing the distorted portion of the signal and using the remaining response and Eq. 19) to find kL a. , 1985). 7 Comparison of the experimental data to Eq. 19) (Model A) and Eq. 20) (Model B) for (a) ????e ≪ 1∕kL a, (b) ????e < 1∕kL a, and (c) ????e ≈ 1∕kL a. Adapted from Jones and Heindel (2007). Garcia-Calvo (2000) suggested that the following model be used to determine kL a: ) ( ( ))] [ ( C∗ − CL 1 −t −m ⋅ t = − m 1 − exp 1 − exp ∗ 1−m ????e ????e C − C0 where m is defined as m= and ???? is the total gas holdup.