By Alan Martin, Sam Harbison, Karen Beach, Peter Cole
A brand new version of the UK's regular creation to the risks provided by way of ionizing radiation and the tools of safety and control.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Radiation Protection 6E
What is the major late effect of radiation and upon what assumptions are risk estimates based? 6. Using a nominal risk coefﬁcient of 5 ¥ 10−2/Sv, calculate the risk from a dose of (a) 5 mSv and (b) 20 mSv. 1 INTRODUCTION Throughout history, man has been exposed to radiation from the environment. This natural background radiation comes from two main sources: cosmic radiation and socalled ‘primordial’ radiation from terrestrial sources. Note that both of these sources can lead to radioactivity within the body.
In addition, gypsum, which arises as a by-product of phosphate processing, is widely used in building materials. 39 40 Natural and man-made radiation It is the responsibility of enterprises that extract, process or use NORM to establish by appropriate surveys and assessments whether the doses are likely to be of radiological signiﬁcance and, where necessary, to introduce adequate measures to ensure that exposures are kept as low as reasonably practicable. 5 RADIOACTIVITY IN THE BODY The ingestion and inhalation of naturally occurring radionuclides gives rise to a dose which varies considerably depending on the location, diet and habits of the individual concerned.
The meter contains a sensitive plastic that registers damage tracks when exposed to a particles. The tracks can then be counted under a microscope and used to give the average radon level during the 3-month period of the measurement. In the UK, it is recommended that an activity concentration of radon in excess of 200 Bq/ m3 in the home would necessitate some action to reduce radon, whereas in the workplace a concentration of greater than the 400 Bq/m3 action level requires regulatory action. The simplest approach used to reduce ingress of the radon is by sealing walls and ﬂoors and increasing the ventilation.