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Stiglitz 11 Floor Discussion 24 Banking Failures: Crisis or Opportunity for Reform? 27 Understanding Financial Crises: A Developing Country Perspective Frederic S. Mishkin 29 Comments Masahiko Aoki Edward J. Kane 63 69 Floor Discussion 76 Bank Insolvency: Bad Luck, Bad Policy, or Bad Banking? Gerard Caprio Jr. and Daniela Klingebiel 79 Comments Donald J. Mathieson Roberto Zahler 105 108 Floor Discussion 111 Reducing Poverty: Targeted Programs and Rural Finance 115 Political Economy of Alleviating Poverty: Theory and Institutions Timothy Besley 117 Comments Arsenio M.

One way to address the problem of choice within the public sector is to create more competition; short Page 19 of that, government can create a culture of customer orientation. Performance measures may be effective in drawing organizational attention to relevant variables and perhaps in motivating the behavior of individual bureaucrats. Changes in attitude toward users of government servicesthinking and referring to service users as customers, for examplemay also help. In some instances performance can be measured and monitored.

Frederic S. Mishkin develops a tool for analyzing banking and financial crises in developing countries based on an asymmetric information framework that provides insights into causes and treatments of financial crises. Some of the causes are the same in industrial and developing countriesrising interest rates, increased uncertainty, deteriorating balance sheets, and bank panics. But some factors differ in ways that have important policy implications for developing countries. In industrial countries the monetary authorities can promote recovery through expansionary monetary policies, but in developing countries the institutional features of the financial system (high and variable inflation, liabilities denominated in foreign currencies) make promoting recovery much more difficult.

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