By Patrick Juola

Authorship attribution, the technology of inferring features of the writer from the features of records written through that writer, is an issue with a protracted heritage and quite a lot of program. it really is a big challenge not just in info retrieval yet in lots of different disciplines in addition, from expertise to educating and from finance to forensics. the concept authors have a statistical "fingerprint'' that may be detected by means of pcs is a compelling person who has bought loads of learn realization. Authorship Attribution surveys the background and current country of the self-discipline, proposing a few comparative effects the place on hand. It additionally presents a theoretical and empirically-tested foundation for extra paintings. Many sleek thoughts are defined and evaluated, besides a few insights for software for beginners and specialists alike. Authorship Attribution may be of specific curiosity to details retrieval researchers and scholars who are looking to stay alongside of the most recent innovations and their purposes. it's also an invaluable source for individuals in different disciplines, be it the trainer drawn to plagiarism detection or the historian attracted to who wrote a specific rfile.

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4 Dendrogram of authorship for five novelists (data and figure courtesy of David Hoover). that this additional information can be helpful in arriving at methods of categorization. 1 Simple Statistics The simplest form of supervised analysis, used since the 1800s, is simple descriptive statistics. For example, given a set of documents from two different authors, we can easily calculate word lengths [106] and (handwaving a few statistical assumptions) apply t-tests to determine whether the two authors have different means.

1 Samples of high frequency, medium frequency, and low frequency words from the Brown corpus. High frequency Rank Type 1 the 2 of 3 and 4 to 5 a 6 in 7 that 8 is 9 was 10 he Medium frequency Rank Type 2496 confused 2497 collected 2498 climbed 2499 changing 2500 burden 2501 asia 2502 arranged 2503 answers 2504 amounts 2505 admitted Rank 39996 39997 39998 39999 40000 40001 40002 40003 40004 40005 Low frequency Type farnworth farnum farneses farmwife farmlands farmland farmington farmhouses farmer-type farmer-in-the-dell In this table, the first ten words have token frequencies varying from about 60,000 (out of a million-token sample) to about 10,000.

1 Vector Spaces and PCA With the feature structure defined in the previous section, it should be apparent how documents can be described in terms of collections of features; quantifying the features, in turn, will implicitly create a high-dimensional “document space” with each document’s feature set defining a vector or a point in that space. For example, the token frequency of fifty well-chosen words defines a fifty-place vector for each document (some normalization would probably be necessary).

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