By Leila Schroeder
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The Tharaka adults found their vowel length rules to be very difficult to master at first. The children, though, who received instruction in Tharaka grammar as part of their spelling exercises, may be mastering it. This is another example of phonological rules impacting the surface representation of morphemes. In this instance, in order to preserve an important semantic contrast, the morpheme, or underlying form, was represented in the orthography. If a noun root starts with a vowel, for example Kwaya, E251(J) /eki-aanga/ ‘skull’, pronounced [ekyaanga], there may be an underlyingly long vowel root initially (regardless of the prenasalized stop which follows it).
Syllable structure) rules of the language and possible morpheme preservation issues. The same principle is in operation as the one for labialization, but the necessity of an underlying /u/ converting to a consonant /w/ when the underlying first vowel is high and rounded doesn’t seem to be as strong for /i/ converting to a consonant when the first underlying vowel is high unrounded. Example: The following chart of vowel sequences for Tharaka (Kithinji 1999:3-4), depicting the vowels in orthographic (not phonetic) form, illustrates this.