By Olga Petre-Quadens

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D and E. Same as B and C, but during an episode of sleep in the same animal. Note the absence of arousal in D and a clear-cut arousal in E, shown by the opening of the eyes (Θ θ ) and by the increase in heart rate. Time calibration applies to all records. ] the neck and exploratory movements of the head. Nevertheless, the arrest of waking activity and the behavioral arousal are elicited at different threshold intensities of stimulation. 8 V). It might of course be suggested that the same system is likely to have a lower excitability during sleep than during wakefulness.

Musumeci sequence of reticular stimulation. We selected heart rate. We have reported in the first part of this paper how we came to the conclusion that there are two antagonistic systems in the brain stem, one leading to arousal and increasing heart rate, another one producing dearousal and eventually leading to sleep, but also abolishing waking behavior when applied as a single train or for a short time. ). According to our interpretation, the regulation or, possibly, the modulation of a sleep—waking cycle is simply one aspect of the functional significance of the ascending systems of the brain stem.

4). This striking increase is m a d e possible by the existence—in the resting animal—of a high level of vagal cardio-inhibitory tone, which is strongly reduced by any ergotropic activation. Pontine stimulation will not only block the bow-cooing, but will also reduce the related effects on heart rate (Fig. 5). Hence the level of activation, as shown by ergotropic manifestations in the autonomic sphere, is actually reduced by the pontine stimulation. Here again threshold stimuli producing the blockade of the bow-cooing (Fig.

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