By A. C. Cox (auth.), Thomas Briggs Ph.D., Albert M. Chandler Ph.D. (eds.)

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D 31. D 8. B 32. 0 E 33. 0 10. A 34. A 11. 0 35. E e 36. C 13. 8 37. C 14. E 38. E 9. 12. e e e e 40. E 18. A 42. 8 19. C 43. 0 20. D 44. B 21. D 45. D 22. C 46. A 23. D 47. C 15. 16. 17. 24. D 39. e 41. B 4. CARBOHYDRATES I. INTRODUCTION Carbohydrate metabolism is the core of intermediary metabolism, providing a large part of the energy requirements of the organism, short-term storage of energy in the form of glycogen, and carbon skeletons for biosynthesis. Amino acids and lipids feed into the pathways of carbohydrate metabolism and the citric (tricarboxylic) acid cycle.

Concentration of substrate. 4. Temperature 17. Urease is an enzyme following Hichaelis-Henten ki- ~----------­ netics. It catalyzes the reaction urea + 2H20 ~ 2NH~ + H2CO~ in plants, and is inhibited by glycine. In the diagram at the right, which of the following materials NH3 could have been added at time T? x foRMED 1. Hore glycine. 2. Hore urease. 3. Hore ammonia. 4. Hore urea. 18. The effect of pH on an enzyme cat- T TIME 20. Conversion of zymogen to active en- 1. ionization of the enzyme-substrate complex.

Pyruvate kinase and glucokinase are also induced by high levels of blood glucose and insulin. Inherited diseases of the glycolytic pathway are rare, most probably being lethal. Oeficiency of erythrocyte pyruvate kinase is known and results in a severe hemolytic anemia. Because they lack mitochondria, erythrocytes are absolutely dependent upon glycolysis for energy. O. Entry of Other Sugars Other sugars are metabolized through the above pathways after conversion to a glycolytic intermediate. rol: 1 glycerol / " ~ glycerol 3-phosphate 7 2 dihydroxyacetone phosphate NAOH + H'" ~ NAO+ ATP AOP 1.

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