By Willis A. Wood, Scott T. Kellogg
This quantity covers cellulose and hemicellulose and contains confirmed and reproducible equipment for study regarding the conversion of carbohydrate polymers to usable monomeric devices. Sections at the coaching of biomass fabrics and of substrates are integrated, as are sections on analytical tools and at the purification and assay of enzymes
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Additional info for Biomass Part A: Cellulose and Hemicellulose
G. Schweiger, Tappi 57, 86 (1974). G. Schweiger, Chem. Ind. (London) 10, 296 (1969). Henley, Ark. Kemi 18, 327 (1961). L. Straus and R. M. Levy, Pap. Trade J. 114, 31 (1942). Jayme, Papier (Darmstadt) 5, 244 (1951). Jayme and K. Neuschaffer, Makromol. Chem. 28, 71 (1957).  CADOXEN SOLVOLYSIS OF CELLULOSE 15 Uses of the Solvent Cadoxen. " Again, the advantages of cadoxen over other available solvents are that it is colorless, relatively easy to handle, dissolves many forms of cellulose quickly, and is stable when exposed to atmospheric oxygen.
Under the acid conditions given above, the cellulose very quickly reaches a leveling-off degree of polymerization of between 100 and 250. It is suggested that the amorphous regions of the cellulose are attacked preferentially with the acid treatment described leaving a highly crystalline residue. Hydrocellulose is available commercially as Avicel. Microcrystalline cellulose similar to Avicel can be prepared by blending the undried hydrocellulose at 5% (w/v) solids concentration in a Waring blender.
12 Concentrations of 1-10% cellulose in solution have been obtained; increased concentrations produced highly viscous solutions. Use of N204 with the DMF or DMAC produces a clear green-blue solution; NOCI produces a clear red-brown solution. 13 Metal Complexes The first metal complex solvent, a copper hydroxide/ammonia solution, was introduced by Schweizer in 1857. The solvent had good solvating properties and produced a clear solution but underwent oxidative degradation, was unstable, and the solution was colored (blue).