By Glaser R.

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4-15) gives an idea of the time it takes for a given process to reach steady-state. Transfer coefficients (f vch /2, h/ρ CP , and kc ) all have the same units, m/s. 3 summarizes the molecular and convective time scales for the transport of momentum, heat, and mass. The tricky issue in the estimation of order of magnitude is how to identify the characteristic length. In general, the characteristic length used in the molecular time scale may be different from that used in the convective time scale.

3) yields NAx |x=0 = DAB cAo (4/3) ρgδ 9μDAB z 1/3 (6) Finally, the use of Eq. (6) in Eq. (1) gives the molar rate of transfer of species A as 1 W cAo n˙ A = 2 (4/3) 3ρgδ μ 1/3 (DAB L)2/3 (7) 28 2. 4-15) As in the case of mass, energy may enter or leave the system by two means: • By inlet and/or outlet streams, • By exchange of energy between the system and its surroundings through the boundaries of the system in the form of heat and work. When energy enters and/or leaves the system by a conduit(s), the characteristic velocity is taken as the average velocity of the flowing stream and it is usually large enough to neglect 1.

The film model for mass transfer. 7. Transfer of species A from the solid to the fluid phase. 7. The molar flux of species A is expressed by Eq. 3-4). In the application of this equation to practical problems of interest, there is no difficulty in defining the concentration in the bulk fluid phase, cA∞ , since this can be measured experimentally. However, to estimate the value of cAw , one has to make an assumption about the conditions at the interface. It is generally assumed that the two phases are in equilibrium with each other at the solid-fluid interface.