By Phillip J. Mackey, Eric J. Grimsey, Rodney T. Jones, Geoffrey A. Brooks

The quantity includes greater than 70 papers protecting the real themes and concerns in metallurgy this present day together with papers as follows: keynote papers masking a tribute to David Robertson, staff talents wanted within the occupation going ahead, copper smelting, ladle metallurgy, strategy metallurgy and source potency, new flash iron making know-how, ferro-alloy electrical furnace smelting and at the function of bubbles in metallurgical processing operations. themes lined intimately during this quantity comprise ferro-alloys, non-ferrous metallurgy, iron and metal, modeling, schooling, and fundamentals.

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Extra info for Celebrating the Megascale: Proceedings of the Extraction and Processing Division Symposium on Pyrometallurgy in Honor of David G.C. Robertson

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C. Robertson, and H-J. Li, "A Direct Reduction Zinc Process". EPD Congress 1999, B. Mishra, Editor, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 865-879,1999. 83. K. N. Swamy, D. G. C. Robertson, P. Calvert, and D. S. Kozak, "Factors Effecting Carbon Consumption in the Production of High Carbon F erromanganese", lNF ACON 9 Proceedings, The Ferroalloy Association, Washington DC, 293-301, 2001. 84. D. G. C. Robertson, "The Kinetics of Reactions in Steelmaking", Siderurgia 2001, Avances Recientes en la Produccion y Manufactura del Hierro y el Acero, A Conejo, Editor, Tnstituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Mexico, I-I to 1-12,2001.

8 million mt of copper in 2011 (Figure 9 [12]). World demand for copper is increasing and by 2025, based on assumptions for world growth, it is expected to approach 30 million mt/yr (smelted copper would be approximately 24 million mt/yr). Much of this copper as concentrate will come from a number of recently announced copper projects in Chile and Peru. Certainly more smelters and refineries will be required to transform this material into copper cathode. Copper smelting technology in use today can be broken into three types as shown in Table 1, which also gives the proportion of world copper produced by each type (2010-2011 data).

Tanks became larger and anode size increased fairly quickly in size in the first 30 to 40 yrs (from about 12 kg), with the typical weight today being 400 kg. Increases in current density also occurred (from about 75 Aim'), a typical value today is about 300 to 340 A/m', which is about the present practical limit with conventional tanks and present electrolyte flows. The key recent developments have been in the use of stainless steel cathodes, increased automation and mechanized handling. 18 2. Continuous smelting and converting testwork using a top lance system and stationary furnace in Czechoslovakia (present day Slovakia), 1960s; 3.

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