By Arnošt Kotyk, Karel Janáček (auth.)

TO the second one variation while getting ready the manuscript for the unique version of this booklet we have been in simple terms in part conscious of the speed at which the sphere of membrane shipping used to be constructing and at which new principles in addition to new concepts will be utilized to it. the truth is that a number of the chapters at the moment are outmoded (e. g. , the only at the molecular elements of shipping) and so forth require revision within the mild of latest details that has seemed long ago 5 years. in spite of the fact that, it's also precise that we overemphasized within the first variation convinced issues that now look less significant and underestimated the effect of sure others that experience in view that assumed a place one of the so much forcefully mentioned subject matters of membrane study. In making amends, it used to be hence suggestion worthy to incorporate the dialogue of those latter difficulties either within the theoretical and within the comparative sections and, however, to fail to remember many of the much less topical topics. there has been a unique cause of rewriting the part on kidney and for shedding the part on mito­ chondria. the aid of knowledgeable nephrologist was once enlisted for making improvements to bankruptcy 24, whereas it used to be made up our minds that mitochondria signify a distinct box either conceptually (being merely subcellular debris) and methodologically (more oblique estimation innovations being concerned than with entire cells or tissues) and that extra enough details are available in treatises focusing on paintings with mitochondria.

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2. Two planes at a finite distance Cio C;;' o x cI between two solutions. Between the two planes there is either no mixing, only diffusion taking place, as corresponds to the assumptions of Planck (such a situation may obtain on using a porous plug of inert material), or else the solution is mixed, as corresponds to the assumptions of Henderson. '" Electrical potential, CI+ concentration of cations, cl- concentration of anions. The distance between the two planes, called arbitrarily the "outer" 0 and "inner" i planes, is ~.

In cm· sec-I) the flow of solute across the same area will be dn I dV Tt=cAd( 29 (1) 30 Kinetic Aspects Secondly, solute molecules can change their position in space due to their tendency to move away from the volume element through their random thermal movement, prevailing in liquids, and to become randomly distributed in space. This second kind of transfer is called diffusion. The random thermal movements being permanent, the diffusion out of the volume element is also permanent, but it depends on the conditions outside this element, whether or not the process will be observable.

Dipoles like amino acids at their isoelectric point) are merely aligned along the direction of such an uniform field. However, it should be remembered that in a nonuniform field also particles with no net charge can be transported; even if the separated charges are equal, the forces exerted on them may differ. , the so-called migration in an electrical field, to be followed by a consideration of transport due to the combined action of an electrical field and of concentration gradients, the. electrodiffusion.

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