By R. S. Asquith

This quantity arose initially from the lawsuits of the editor's scholars, either undergraduate and postgraduate, that there has been no smooth publication on protein fibers which informed sufficient approximately protein technology and chemical tech­ nologies on the topic of fibers. mainly this is often most likely an affordable cri de coeur. The undergraduate on a technological path, missing info at the simple clinical strategies used to hold out the examine on which his fiber expertise relies, can locate it tricky to procure this data. The natural technological know-how undergraduate usually lacks wisdom of the appliance of those concepts in protein fiber expertise. The younger graduates, com­ mencing learn concerning a few point of protein fibers, are drawn from a variety of clinical disciplines, having been informed as biochemists, chemists, physicists, technologists, and histologists, to call yet a number of. regularly those new learn staff go through a initial "lost" interval during which they need to review their heritage when it comes to the huge and differing fields of study in protein fiber technological know-how to which they're now uncovered. As time is going on they then both advance a large wisdom overlaying technological know-how and expertise or stay in a selected a part of their unique self-discipline, with a slender wisdom of its software within the box of the learn measure they're taking.

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3. (158) S-Sulfo derivatives are stable in neutral solution but are unstable in acid media. 4. Oxidative Sulfitolysis Sulfitolysis of disulfides results in asymmetric fission (Eq. 1-4), which adds an undesirable degree of complexity if the products have to be fractionated. Oxidative sulfitolysis (159) converts both fission products to their S-sulfo derivatives. The reaction is represented by (Eq. , in aldolase (160) and in the synthesis of insulin (163»). 5. Cyanolysis Cyanide reacts with disulfides to form S-cyano derivatives: RS - SR + CN - ~ RSCN + RS- (1-7) This reaction is not of practical value for the cleavage of the disulfide bonds in proteins, but Catsimpoolas and Wood (164) have shown that it is potentially useful for the specific cleavage of peptide chains at the amino groups of cystine: the S-cyanocysteine residue formed in the unsymmetrical reaction slowly cyclizes to an acyliminothiazolidine that undergoes spontaneous hydrolysis.

An alternative type of cleavage at the peptide link is also observed to a lesser extent, and certain amino acid side chains show characteristic fragmentation behavior. , the combined use of acetyl and trideuterioacetyl groups for N protection, which produces pairs of peaks separated by three mass units). With high-resolution instruments, such techniques are less important. In an ingenious method for the determination ofN-terminal sequences,<319) a protein is acylated with an equimolar mixture of acetic anhydride and trideuterioacetic anhydride and then digested with a suitable proteolytic enzyme.

The modified peptides lie off the 45° diagonal line determined by the unmodified peptides. (244) The technique has been applied by Cruickshank et al. 7. Amino-Acid-Sequence Determination While the subjects treated in earlier sections of this chapter form an important part of the technique of primary structure determination, the actual ordering of amino acid residues in peptides, large or small, depends heavily on the topological uniqueness of the N- and C-terminal residues of a polypeptide chain.

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