By Kamal K. Kar (eds.)
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The resin/catalyst ratios are controlled by metered mixing equipment and injected into the mold port as shown in Fig. 8. The commonly used matrix resins include polyester, vinyl ester, epoxy, and phenolics. Both injection and curing can take place at either ambient or elevated temperature. In order to have optimum surface ﬁnish, a gel coat is applied to the mold surface prior to molding. High-quality parts such as automotive body parts, bathtubs, and containers are produced by this method. Otten and Siebrecht have developed a device for manufacturing a composite component by RTM .
A parametric study explains the effect of process and material parameters on the performance of the control system. Tackitt and Walsh have conducted another experimental analysis on variation in thickness in the VARTM process . This thickness variation results in change in volume percent of the ﬁber and the related mechanical properties. The thickness gradient is studied using a range of linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) to observe displacements of the surface during infusion.
Belingardi et al. have proposed alternative lightweight materials (GMT, GMTex, and GMT-UD) for automobile bumper subsystems using pultrusion process . Major parameters, such as impact energy, peak load, crash resistance, energy absorption, and stiffness, have been taken as evaluation criteria to compare the proposed material solutions with pultruded and steel solutions. The results predicted by the ﬁnite element analysis have been evaluated and interpreted in comparison with other existing solutions to put in evidence the effectiveness of the proposed innovative materials and design concept solutions.