By Henry Levy, Richard Eckhouse

Takes a distinct platforms method of programming and structure of the VAX

utilizing the VAX as a close instance, the 1st 1/2 this e-book deals a whole direction in meeting language programming. the second one describes higher-level platforms concerns in laptop structure. Highlights contain the VAX assembler and debugger, different sleek architectures equivalent to RISCs, multiprocessing and parallel computing, microprogramming, caches and translation buffers, and an appendix at the Berkeley UNIX assembler.

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Show the ASCII representation for this sentence. 14. We say that the VAX is an ASCII machine. What does this mean? Suppose we used another encoding besides ASCII. Would this have any impact on the instruction set? Exercises 35 15. What is a normalized fraction? Why are normalized fractions used in floatingpoint number representations? 16. 5. 6. Which was harder to compute and why? 17. Can all decimal numbers be represented in floating-point format? Why or why not? 18. Why can decimal string digits be stored in 4-bit nibbles, when ASCII characters use a byte of storage?

Hold an octaword. In this case, the entire information unit is named by the lower numbered of the adjacent registers. That is, if a quadword is stored in register 2 (R2) and register 3 (R3), we specify the unit by R2. Another information unit found in the VAX is the variable-length bit field. The bit field is different in that the basic addressable unit is based on a length measured not in bytes but in bits. A bit field can be from 0 to 32 contiguous bits in length and can be located arbitrarily with respect to the beginning of a byte.

Since the most significant bit must be 1 if the number is nonzero, it is redundant and not stored. This effectively enables the fraction to be stored in 52 bits. This form is called a normalized fraction. That is, when 1024 (210) is subtracted from the exponent, the result represents the power of 2 by which the fraction is multiplied to obtain the true value of the floating-point number. Thus, exponent values of 1 through 2047 indicate binary exponents of - 1 0 2 3 through +1023. An exponent of zero together with a sign bit of of zero indicates that the value of the number is zero, regardless of the value of the fraction.

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