III III 5 6 Ischemic ulceration Ischemic gangrene Adapted from Patel et al.

2 Right femoral artery, plaque and thrombus the liver, spleen, kidneys, and extremities, especially during vascular surgery. The following paragraphs depict and mention a variety of pathological entities, which amplify the diversity of causes responsible for ischemic limb diseases, as discussed and presented in photographic form by Endlich and Roscher [4]. Many times the pathologist is the final physician to see the extremity with severe ischemic concerns. When the pathologist receives the amputated digit or extremity, the patient’s options have been exhausted from the clinical and pathologic aspects in most circumstances.

The Lewis A. Conner Memorial Lecture. Circulation. 1965;32: 438–50. 7. Tanaka K. Pathology and pathogenesis of Buerger’s disease (TAO). Int J Cardiol. 1998;66:S237–42. 28 8. Dellalibera-Joiliana R, Joiliana EE, Silva JS, Evora PR. Activation of cytokines corroborates with development of inflammation and autoimmunity within thromboangiitis obliterans in patients. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012;170(1):28–35. 9. Lozarides MK, Georgiadis GS, Pappas TT, Nizolopoulos ES. Diagnostic criteria and treatment of Buerger’s disease with review.

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